Organic waste is material that is biodegradable and comes from nature, either a plant or an animal. Organic waste is usually broken down by other organisms over time and may also be referred to as wet waste. Examples of organic waste include green waste, food waste, food-soiled paper, non- hazardous wood waste, green waste, and landscape and pruning waste.
Dry waste is typically defined as any waste which will not rot or disintegrate over time. Dry waste can also be described as inorganic or non-biodegradable waste given its lack of food products.
Examples - Paper, plastics, metal, glass, rubber, thermocol, Styrofoam, fabric, leather, rexine, wood – anything that can be kept for an extended period without decomposing.
Segregation is important for:
Keep separate containers for dry and wet waste in the kitchen
Keep plastic from the kitchen clean and dry and drop into the dry waste bin. Keep glass /plastic containers rinsed of food matter.
Composting is the biological decomposition of organic waste such as food or plant material by bacteria, fungi, worms and other organisms under controlled aerobic (occurring in the presence of oxygen) conditions. This process recycles various organic materials otherwise regarded as waste products and produces a soil conditioner (the compost).
Finished compost is dark and crumbly in texture and mostly broken down with a pleasant earth-like smell.
Under ideal conditions, composting proceeds through three major phases:
Aerobic composting is decomposition of organic matter using microorganisms that require oxygen. As aerobic digestion takes place the by-products are heat, water and carbon dioxide (CO2). Additionally, CO2 is only 1/20th as harmful to the environment as methane (the main by-product of anaerobic degradation).
The heat produced in aerobic composting is sufficient to kill harmful bacteria and pathogens as these organisms are not adapted to these environmental conditions. It also helps support the growth of beneficial bacteria species including psychrophilic, mesophilic, and thermophilic bacteria which thrive at the higher temperature levels.
From start to finish, the in-vessel aerobic composting process takes only 8-10 days. No leachate is produced as any surplus moisture is extracted.
Anaerobic composting is decomposition that occurs using microorganisms that do not require oxygen to survive. In an anaerobic system the majority of the chemical energy contained within the starting material is released as methane. The process is characterised by very strong odours and only a small amount of heat is generated meaning decomposition takes much longer and doesn’t reach sufficient temperatures to safely kill plant pathogens, weed and seeds. To overcome these limitations external (artificial) heat is normally added. As the material is broken down by anaerobic digestion, it creates a sludge-like material that is even more difficult to break down. This material, digestate, typically requires aerobic composting to complete the stabilization process.
Benefits of Composting:
Approximately, 10% to 30% of the organic waste input is converted to compost.
The compost can be used in one of the following ways:
Yes. Shredding is one of the important steps in the composting process. Shredding helps in volume reduction and hasten the biological decomposition process. Shredder break the waste into small particles i.e., increase in surface area for bacteria to act on. Small particles accelerate the composting process by significantly reducing the heat requirement for dehydration. The compost is much finer and good quality due to the Shredder.
Also, additional segregation of soft wet waste and Hard wet waste need not to be one as require in the system without shredder.
All type of biodegradable material including tender coconuts, water melon shells, cornbases, nonveg bones, etc.
Any non-biodegradable material like Paper, plastics, metal, glass, rubber, thermocol, Styrofoam, fabric, leather, rexine, etc.
We should avoid the entry of non-biodegradable material. Polythene or plastic paper may get wrapped around the shredder blades, mixing arms and shafts. Hard metal parts may block the blades.
Scientifically, bones take years to decompose. Due to inbuilt shredder, the bones are broken into small pieces increasing surface area but cannot be fully decomposed.
As it is hard material, it takes a long time to decompose, so it cannot be decomposed in the machine within 10-12 days.
No, it is not compulsory to have the machine. However it is mandatory to treat the organic waste on the premises if the daily waste generation is more than 100 kg.
There are three types of composting machines are available.
Dry Saw dust and Bacterial enzyme culture are the required consumables.
Dry garden waste can be used as an alternative to sawdust. But its required quantity may be more than the saw dust.